Use these techniques to increase your chances of finding the newspaper articles most relevant to your research.
|AND||"all of these"||too many results? add another search terms using AND|
|OR||"any of these"||too few results? add another search term using OR|
|NOT||"none of these"||irrelevant results? eliminate some using NOT|
|NEAR||"within n words of each other"||need words close together, but not exactly in order|
|" "||"the exact phrase"||use quotations to search with 2 or more words in a precise order|
|GEOGRAPHY||restrict results to a state, city, or specific newspaper title|
|DATE||restrict results by year(s), month(s), or exact dates|
|PRE-LIMIT||set search limit before the search is executed|
|POST-LIMIT||also called filters or facets, limit results after the search is done|
These techniques allow for searching with character variation when one or more characters are unknown or uncertain.
|?||fills in a single character (0 or 1 places)||wom?n = woman, women|
|*||fills in 1 or more characters||child* = child, children|
|* *||fills in 1 or more characters in the middle of and/or at the end of a word||far*m* = farm, farms, farmer, farmers BUT ALSO Fartham, Farnum's|
|? *||combine wildcards and truncation with operators for more sophisticated search options||wom?n NEAR3 child* = women and children, children and women, women and four children, woman big with child|
Before diving into your newspaper search, take a few moments to formulate your research question and objectives. Your question should be:
Do the following search in Early American Newspapers:
Ellen NEAR2 William NEAR2 Craft
This yields resutls for the couple, Ellen and William Craft. Note that by using NEAR we retrieve results with the couple's names in either order
But always the names appear near enough to each other to yield meaningful results.