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Cite Your Sources

How To | Cite Your Sources

APA: Tips and Tricks

  • If someone else thought of the ideas that you are writing, cite them!
  • APA uses bias-free language--which is why authors' first names are abbreviated. 
  • Your reference list should be:
    • Alphabetized
    • Double-spaced
    • Have a hanging indent
  • In-text citations typically require the first piece of information from the reference list as well as the year if the work you are citing.

Multiple Authors

If there are between 1 and 20 authors listed for a work then list ALL authors. List them in the usual inverted format of surname, first initial. Use an ampersand (&) between the last two authors' names. 

ex: Smith, W.H.

ex: Smith, W.H.,  Hobart, J. H., Blackwell, E., Spencer, D., & Scrooge, E.

If there are 21 or more authors listed then include the first 19 names, an elipsis (...) and then the final author's name.

ex: Blackwell, E., Smith, W.H., Hobart, J.H., Scrooge, E., Butler, O., Calvin, J., Marley, J., Cratchit, M., Cratchit, T., Jefferson, T., Washington, G., Adams, A., Locke, J., Hobbes, T., Mountbatten, E., Spencer, D., Parker-Bowles, C., Tubman H., Angelou, M., ... McAllister, K.

Book

Reference list:

Foster, M. (2009). Pandemonium and parade: Japanese monsters and the culture of the Yōkai. University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1525/j.ctt1ppkrc

In-text: (Foster, 2009)

Journal Article

Reference List:

Shamoon, D. (2013). The Yōkai in the database: Supernatural creatures and folklore in manga and anime. Marvels & Tales, 27(2), 276-289. muse.jhu.edu/article/524101

In-text: (Shamoon, 2013).

Newspaper

Reference list:

Brubaker, B. (2007, May 24). New health center targets county's uninsured patients. Washington Post, https://ezproxy.hws.edu/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/newspapers/new-health-center-targets-countys-uninsured/docview/410169320/se-2?accountid=27680

OR (depending on if the article you used was in print or online)

Brubaker, B. (2007, May 24). New health center targets county's uninsured patients. Washington Post, LZ01. 

In-text: (Brubaker, 2007)

Website

Reference List:

Hill, K. (2019, September 9). Japanese monsters, ghosts, and spirits: Mythical Yōkai (妖怪) at OSU libraries. The Ohio State University Libraries. https://library.osu.edu/site/japanese/2019/09/09/japanese-monsters-ghosts-and-spirits-mythical-yokai-%e5%a6%96%e6%80%aa-at-osu-libraries/ .

In-text: (Hill, 2019)

Film

Reference list:

Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1954). Seven samurai [Film]. Embassy Home Entertainment.

In-text: (Kurosawa, 1954)

Online Video

Reference list:

TEDx. (2013, May 12). Kazumi Murose: Urushi and Japanese culture [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/5FIwrsoTJfM

In-text: (TEDx, 2013)

Image

Reference list:

Meyer, M. (2013 April 6). Okuri inu [Illustration]. Yokai.com, http://yokai.com/okuriinu/

In-text: (Meyer, 2013)

Reference Works (Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, etc.)

Reference list:

Oxford University Press. (1989). Apparition. In Oxford English dictionary. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/9527?rskey=7EtOx2&result=1&isAdvanced=false&p=emailASAIwOs1t6/iU&d=9527

In-text: (Oxford University Press, 1989)

Podcast

Reference list:

Nasser, L. (Host). (2020, March 10). Cuba-ish [Audio podcast episode]. In The other Latif. WNYC Studies. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/other-latif/articles/other-latif-cuba-ish

In-text: (Nasser, 2020)

Archival Materials

Reference list:

Bradley, M.Z. (1970, June 1). [Letter to XYZ]. Lesbian Legacy Collection Subject Files (Box 4, Folder 1. Coll2009-004). ONE Archives at the USC Libraries, Los Angeles, CA.

In-text: (Bradley, 1970)

Acknowledgement

All information on the Citing archival materials page is used with permission of the USC libraries and comes from their Citing Archival Sources FAQ

Galoozis, Elizabeth. "Q. How do I cite archival sources?" Library FAQs. 13 Aug. 2015. http://libanswers.usc.edu/faq/90617. Accessed 3 March 2018.

Additional Resources