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How To: Cite Your Sources


APA: Tips and Tricks

  • If someone else thought of the ideas that you are writing, cite them!
  • APA uses bias-free language--which is why authors' first names are abbreviated. 
  • Your reference list should be:
    • Alphabetized
    • Double-spaced
    • Have a hanging indent
  • In-text citations typically require the first piece of information from the reference list as well as the year if the work you are citing.

Multiple Authors

If there are between 1 and 20 authors listed for a work then list ALL authors. List them in the usual inverted format of surname, first initial. Use an ampersand (&) between the last two authors' names. 

ex: Smith, W.H.

ex: Smith, W.H.,  Hobart, J. H., Blackwell, E., Spencer, D., & Scrooge, E.

If there are 21 or more authors listed then include the first 19 names, an elipsis (...) and then the final author's name.

ex: Blackwell, E., Smith, W.H., Hobart, J.H., Scrooge, E., Butler, O., Calvin, J., Marley, J., Cratchit, M., Cratchit, T., Jefferson, T., Washington, G., Adams, A., Locke, J., Hobbes, T., Mountbatten, E., Spencer, D., Parker-Bowles, C., Tubman H., Angelou, M., ... McAllister, K.


Reference list:

Foster, M. (2009). Pandemonium and parade: Japanese monsters and the culture of the Yōkai. University of California Press.

In-text: (Foster, 2009)

Journal Article

Reference List:

Shamoon, D. (2013). The Yōkai in the database: Supernatural creatures and folklore in manga and anime. Marvels & Tales, 27(2), 276-289.

In-text: (Shamoon, 2013).


Reference list:

Brubaker, B. (2007, May 24). New health center targets county's uninsured patients. Washington Post,

OR (depending on if the article you used was in print or online)

Brubaker, B. (2007, May 24). New health center targets county's uninsured patients. Washington Post, LZ01. 

In-text: (Brubaker, 2007)


Reference List:

Hill, K. (2019, September 9). Japanese monsters, ghosts, and spirits: Mythical Yōkai (妖怪) at OSU libraries. The Ohio State University Libraries. .

In-text: (Hill, 2019)


Reference list:

Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1954). Seven samurai [Film]. Embassy Home Entertainment.

In-text: (Kurosawa, 1954)

Online Video

Reference list:

TEDx. (2013, May 12). Kazumi Murose: Urushi and Japanese culture [Video]. YouTube.

In-text: (TEDx, 2013)


Reference list:

Meyer, M. (2013 April 6). Okuri inu [Illustration].,

In-text: (Meyer, 2013)

Reference Works (Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, etc.)

Reference list:

Oxford University Press. (1989). Apparition. In Oxford English dictionary. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from

In-text: (Oxford University Press, 1989)


Reference list:

Nasser, L. (Host). (2020, March 10). Cuba-ish [Audio podcast episode]. In The other Latif. WNYC Studies.

In-text: (Nasser, 2020)

Archival Materials

Reference list:

Bradley, M.Z. (1970, June 1). [Letter to XYZ]. Lesbian Legacy Collection Subject Files (Box 4, Folder 1. Coll2009-004). ONE Archives at the USC Libraries, Los Angeles, CA.

In-text: (Bradley, 1970)


All information on the Citing archival materials page is used with permission of the USC libraries and comes from their Citing Archival Sources FAQ

Galoozis, Elizabeth. "Q. How do I cite archival sources?" Library FAQs. 13 Aug. 2015. Accessed 3 March 2018.

Additional Resources