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Cite Your Sources

How To | Cite Your Sources

Chicago: Tips and Tricks

  • If someone else thought of the ideas that you are writing, cite them!
  • Chicago has two different systems for citing sources
    • Notes and Bibliography
      • characterized by footnotes or endnotes with shortened citations and then a complete bibliography at the end.
      • This is the most commonly used system.
    • Author-Date
  • Your bibliography should be:
    • Alphabetized
    • Have a hanging indent

How does Chicago handle authors' names?

Single Author

In the note the name of the author is listed First name Last name.

1st note ex: Warren Hunting Smith,

2nd note ex: Smith, 

In the bibliography invert the name so the last name comes first.

ex: Smith, Warren Hunting.

Two Authors

In the note both names are listed first name followed by last name.

1st note ex: Warren Hunting Smither and John Hobart.

2nd note ex: Smith and Hobart.

In the bibliography entry invert the name of the first author, but not the second.

ex: Smith, Warren Hunting and John Hobart.

Three Authors

Follows the same basic pattern as two authors:

1st note ex.: Warren Hunting Smith, John Hobart, and Elizabeth Blackwell.

2nd note ex.: 2. Smith, Hobart, and Blackwell.

Bibliography ex.: Smith, Warren Hunting, John Hobart, and Elizabeth Blackwell.

Four or More Authors

When you have four or more authors you need to list all of them in the bibliography, but in the notes you only need to cite the name of the first author and then write "et al."*.

Notes ex.: Smith, et al. 

Bibliography ex.: Smith, Warren Hunting, John Hobart, Elizabeth Blackwell, Benjamin Hale, Eliphalet Potter, and Murray Bartlett.

*Note: et al. is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase "and others".

Book

1st Note:

1. John Doe, Yōkai: Magic, Mystery, and Myth, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2019), 112.

Shortened Note:

2. Doe, Yōkai: Magic, Mystery, and Myth, 147.

Bibliography: 

Doe, John. Yōkai: Magic, Mystery, and Myth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2019.

Journal Article

1st note:

1. Shamoon, Deborah. "The Yōkai in the Database: Supernatural Creatures and Folklore in Manga and Anime." Marvels & Tales 27, no. 2 (2013): 278, muse.jhu.edu/article/524101.

2nd note:

2. Shamoon. "The Yōkai in the Database, 286.

Bibliography:

Shamoon, Deborah. "The Yōkai in the Database: Supernatural Creatures and Folklore in Manga and Anime." Marvels & Tales 27, no. 2, (2013): 276-289. muse.jhu.edu/article/524101.

Newspaper

1st note:

Brubaker, Bill, "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients," Washington Post, May 24, 2007.

2nd note: 

Brubaker, Bill, "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients."

Bibliography:

Brubaker, Bill. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients." Washington Post, May 24, 2007.

Website

1st note:

Hill, Keiko, "Japanese Monsters, Ghosts, and Spirits: Mythical Yōkai (妖怪) at OSU Libraries," The Ohio State University Libraries, September 9, 2019, https://library.osu.edu/site/japanese/2019/09/09/japanese-monsters-ghosts-and-spirits-mythical-yokai-%e5%a6%96%e6%80%aa-at-osu-libraries/.

2nd note:

Hill, "Japanese Monsters, Ghosts, and Spirits."

Bibliography:

Hill, Keiko. "Japanese Monsters, Ghosts, and Spirits: Mythical Yōkai (妖怪) at OSU Libraries." The Ohio State University Libraries. September 9, 2019. https://library.osu.edu/site/japanese/2019/09/09/japanese-monsters-ghosts-and-spirits-mythical-yokai-%e5%a6%96%e6%80%aa-at-osu-libraries/.

 

Online Video

1st note:

TEDx Talks, "Urushi and Japanese Culture: Kazumi Murose at TEDxTokyo." Uploaded May 12, 2013, YouTube video. https://youtu.be/5FIwrsoTJfM.

2nd note:

TEDx Talks, "Urushi and Japanese Culture."

Bibliography:

TEDx Talks. "Urushi and Japanese Culture: Kazumi Murose at TEDxTokyo." Uploaded May 12, 2013, YouTube video, https://youtu.be/5FIwrsoTJfM.

Films

1st note:

Seven Samurai, directed by Akira Kurosawa, (1954; Los Angeles: Embassy Home Entertainment, 1987), DVD.

2nd note:

Kurosawa, Seven Samurai.

Bibliography:

Kurosawa, Akira, dir. Seven Samurai. 1954; Los Angeles: Embassy Home Entertainment, 1987. DVD.

Image

1st note: 

Meyer, Matthew, Okuri inu, April 6, 2013, Illustration, Yokai.com, http://yokai.com/okuriinu/.

2nd note:

Meyer, Okuri inu.

Bibliography:

Meyer, Matthew. Okuri inu. April 6, 2013. Illustration. Yokai.com, http://yokai.com/okuriinu/.

Reference Works (Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, etc.)

1st note: 

Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "Apparition," 1989, https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/9527?rskey=7EtOx2&result=1&isAdvanced=false&p=emailASAIwOs1t6/iU&d=9527.

2nd note:

Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "Apparition."

Bibliography:

Oxford English Dictionary. s.v. "Apparition." 1989. https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/9527?rskey=7EtOx2&result=1&isAdvanced=false&p=emailASAIwOs1t6/iU&d=9527.

*Note: s.v. is Latin for sub verbo which means "under the word".  The letters "s.v." should precede the name of the entry in the encyclopedia or dictionary.

Archival Materials

 

Chicago notes example

Photograph, "Lisa Ben" [ca. 1965], Box 4, Folder 1, Lesbian Legacy Collection Subject Files, ONE Archives at USC Libraries, USC, Los Angeles, CA.

If you've cited one item from an archival collection, the name of the item or its creator is usually the main element in the bibliography entry. If you've cited more than one item from an archival collection, the name of the collection is usually the main element in the bibliography entry.

 

Chicago bibliography example if using multiple items from the collection

Ben, Lisa, Lesbian Legacy Collection Subject Files. ONE Archives at USC Libraries, University of Southern, CA. Los Angeles, CA.

Acknowledgement

All information on the Citing archival materials page is used with permission of the USC libraries and comes from their Citing Archival Sources FAQ

Galoozis, Elizabeth. "Q. How do I cite archival sources?" Library FAQs. 13 Aug. 2015. http://libanswers.usc.edu/faq/90617. Accessed 3 March 2018.

Additional Resources

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